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RS-DBI.c

/* 
 * $Id: RS-DBI.c 57 2002-08-24 02:13:39Z dj $ 
 *
 *
 * Copyright (C) 1999-2002 The Omega Project for Statistical Computing
 *
 * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
 * version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
 * Lesser General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
 */

#include "RS-DBI.h"

/* TODO: monitor memory/object size consumption against S limits 
 *       in $SHOME/include/options.h we find "max_memory". We then
 *       mem_size to make sure we're not bumping into problems.
 *       But, is mem_size() reliable?  How should we do this?
 *
 * TODO: invoke user-specified generators 
 *
 * TODO: Implement exception objects for each dbObject.
 */

static RS_DBI_manager *dbManager = NULL;

Mgr_Handle *
RS_DBI_allocManager(const char *drvName, Sint max_con,
                Sint fetch_default_rec, Sint force_realloc)
{
  /* Currently, the dbManager is a singleton (therefore we don't 
   * completly free all the space).  Here we alloc space
   * for the dbManager and return its mgrHandle.  force_realloc
   * means to re-allocate number of connections, etc. (in this case
   * we require to have all connections closed).  (Note that if we
   * re-allocate, we don't re-set the counter, and thus we make sure
   * we don't recycle connection Ids in a giver S/R session).
   */
  Mgr_Handle     *mgrHandle;
  RS_DBI_manager *mgr;
  Sint counter;
  Sint mgr_id = (Sint) getpid();
  int i;

  mgrHandle = RS_DBI_asMgrHandle(mgr_id);

  if(!dbManager){                      /* alloc for the first time */
    counter = 0;                       /* connections handled so far */
    mgr = (RS_DBI_manager*) malloc(sizeof(RS_DBI_manager));
  }
  else {                               /* we're re-entering */
    if(dbManager->connections){        /* and mgr is valid */
      if(!force_realloc)            
      return mgrHandle;
      else
      RS_DBI_freeManager(mgrHandle);  /* i.e., free connection arrays*/    
    }
    counter = dbManager->counter;
    mgr = dbManager;
  }
 /* Ok, we're here to expand number of connections, etc.*/
  if(!mgr)
    RS_DBI_errorMessage("could not malloc the dbManger", RS_DBI_ERROR);
  mgr->drvName = RS_DBI_copyString(drvName);
  mgr->drvData = (void *) NULL;
  mgr->managerId = mgr_id;
  mgr->connections =  (RS_DBI_connection **) 
    calloc((size_t) max_con, sizeof(RS_DBI_connection));
  if(!mgr->connections){
    free(mgr);
    RS_DBI_errorMessage("could not calloc RS_DBI_connections", RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }
  mgr->connectionIds = (Sint *) calloc((size_t)max_con, sizeof(Sint));
  if(!mgr->connectionIds){
    free(mgr->connections);
    free(mgr);
    RS_DBI_errorMessage("could not calloc vector of connection Ids",
          RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }
  mgr->counter = counter;
  mgr->length = max_con;
  mgr->num_con = (Sint) 0;
  mgr->fetch_default_rec = fetch_default_rec;
  for(i=0; i < max_con; i++){
    mgr->connectionIds[i] = -1;
    mgr->connections[i] = (RS_DBI_connection *) NULL;
  }
  
  dbManager = mgr;

  return mgrHandle;
}

/* We don't want to completely free the dbManager, but rather we 
 * re-initialize all the fields except for mgr->counter to ensure we don't
 * re-cycle connection ids across R/S DBI sessions in the the same pid
 * (S/R session).
 */
void
RS_DBI_freeManager(Mgr_Handle *mgrHandle)
{
  RS_DBI_manager *mgr;

  mgr = RS_DBI_getManager(mgrHandle);
  if(mgr->num_con > 0){    
    char *errMsg = "all opened connections were forcebly closed";
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_WARNING);
  }
  if(mgr->drvData){
    char *errMsg = "mgr->drvData was not freed (some memory leaked)";
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_WARNING);
  }
  if(mgr->drvName){
    free(mgr->drvName);
    mgr->drvName = (char *) NULL;
  }
  if(mgr->connections) {
    free(mgr->connections);
    mgr->connections = (RS_DBI_connection **) NULL;
  }
  if(mgr->connectionIds) {
    free(mgr->connectionIds);
    mgr->connectionIds = (Sint *) NULL;
  }
  return;
}

Con_Handle *
RS_DBI_allocConnection(Mgr_Handle *mgrHandle, Sint max_res)
{
  RS_DBI_manager    *mgr;
  RS_DBI_connection *con;
  Con_Handle  *conHandle;
  Sint  i, indx, con_id;
  
  mgr = RS_DBI_getManager(mgrHandle);
  indx = RS_DBI_newEntry(mgr->connectionIds, mgr->length);
  if(indx < 0){
    char buf[128], msg[128];
    (void) strcat(msg, "cannot allocate a new connection -- maximum of ");
    (void) strcat(msg, "%d connections already opened");
    (void) sprintf(buf, msg, (int) mgr->length);
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(buf, RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }
  con = (RS_DBI_connection *) malloc(sizeof(RS_DBI_connection));
  if(!con){
    char *errMsg = "could not malloc dbConnection";
    RS_DBI_freeEntry(mgr->connectionIds, indx);
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }
  con->managerId = MGR_ID(mgrHandle);
  con_id = mgr->counter;
  con->connectionId = con_id;
  con->drvConnection = (void *) NULL;
  con->drvData = (void *) NULL;    /* to be used by the driver in any way*/
  con->conParams = (void *) NULL;
  con->counter = (Sint) 0;
  con->length = max_res;           /* length of resultSet vector */
  
  /* result sets for this connection */
  con->resultSets = (RS_DBI_resultSet **)
    calloc((size_t) max_res, sizeof(RS_DBI_resultSet));
  if(!con->resultSets){
    char  *errMsg = "could not calloc resultSets for the dbConnection";
    RS_DBI_freeEntry(mgr->connectionIds, indx);
    free(con);
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }
  con->num_res = (Sint) 0;
  con->resultSetIds = (Sint *) calloc((size_t) max_res, sizeof(Sint));
  if(!con->resultSetIds) {
    char *errMsg = "could not calloc vector of resultSet Ids";
    free(con->resultSets);
    free(con);
    RS_DBI_freeEntry(mgr->connectionIds, indx);
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }
  for(i=0; i<max_res; i++){
    con->resultSets[i] = (RS_DBI_resultSet *) NULL;
    con->resultSetIds[i] = -1;
  }

  /* Finally, update connection table in mgr */
  mgr->num_con += (Sint) 1;
  mgr->counter += (Sint) 1;
  mgr->connections[indx] = con;
  mgr->connectionIds[indx] = con_id;
  conHandle = RS_DBI_asConHandle(MGR_ID(mgrHandle), con_id);
  return conHandle;
}

/* the invoking (freeing) function must provide a function for
 * freeing the conParams, and by setting the (*free_drvConParams)(void *)
 * pointer.
 */

void 
RS_DBI_freeConnection(Con_Handle *conHandle)
{
  RS_DBI_connection *con;
  RS_DBI_manager    *mgr;
  Sint indx;

  con = RS_DBI_getConnection(conHandle);
  mgr = RS_DBI_getManager(conHandle);

  /* Are there open resultSets? If so, free them first */
  if(con->num_res > 0) {
    char *errMsg = "opened resultSet(s) forcebly closed";
    int  i;
    Res_Handle  *rsHandle;

    for(i=0; i < con->num_res; i++){
      rsHandle = RS_DBI_asResHandle(con->managerId,
                            con->connectionId,
                            (Sint) con->resultSetIds[i]);
      RS_DBI_freeResultSet(rsHandle);
    }
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_WARNING);
  }
  if(con->drvConnection) {
    char *errMsg = 
      "internal error in RS_DBI_freeConnection: driver might have left open its connection on the server";
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_WARNING);
  }
  if(con->conParams){
    char *errMsg =
      "internal error in RS_DBI_freeConnection: non-freed con->conParams (tiny memory leaked)";
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_WARNING);
  }
  if(con->drvData){
    char *errMsg = 
      "internal error in RS_DBI_freeConnection: non-freed con->drvData (some memory leaked)";
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_WARNING);
  }
  /* delete this connection from manager's connection table */
  if(con->resultSets) free(con->resultSets);
  if(con->resultSetIds) free(con->resultSetIds);

  /* update the manager's connection table */
  indx = RS_DBI_lookup(mgr->connectionIds, mgr->length, con->connectionId);
  RS_DBI_freeEntry(mgr->connectionIds, indx);
  mgr->connections[indx] = (RS_DBI_connection *) NULL;
  mgr->num_con -= (Sint) 1;

  free(con);
  con = (RS_DBI_connection *) NULL;

  return;
}

Res_Handle *
RS_DBI_allocResultSet(Con_Handle *conHandle)
{
  RS_DBI_connection *con = NULL;
  RS_DBI_resultSet  *result = NULL;
  Res_Handle  *rsHandle;
  Sint indx, res_id;

  con = RS_DBI_getConnection(conHandle);
  indx = RS_DBI_newEntry(con->resultSetIds, con->length);
  if(indx < 0){
    char msg[128], fmt[128];
    (void) strcpy(fmt, "cannot allocate a new resultSet -- ");
    (void) strcat(fmt, "maximum of %d resultSets already reached");
    (void) sprintf(msg, fmt, con->length);
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(msg, RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }

  result = (RS_DBI_resultSet *) malloc(sizeof(RS_DBI_resultSet));
  if(!result){
    char *errMsg = "could not malloc dbResultSet";
    RS_DBI_freeEntry(con->resultSetIds, indx);
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }
  result->drvResultSet = (void *) NULL; /* driver's own resultSet (cursor)*/
  result->drvData = (void *) NULL;   /* this can be used by driver*/
  result->statement = (char *) NULL;
  result->managerId = MGR_ID(conHandle);
  result->connectionId = CON_ID(conHandle);
  result->resultSetId = con->counter;
  result->isSelect = (Sint) -1;
  result->rowsAffected = (Sint) -1;
  result->rowCount = (Sint) 0;
  result->completed = (Sint) -1;
  result->fields = (RS_DBI_fields *) NULL;
  
  /* update connection's resultSet table */
  res_id = con->counter;
  con->num_res += (Sint) 1;
  con->counter += (Sint) 1;
  con->resultSets[indx] = result;
  con->resultSetIds[indx] = res_id;

  rsHandle = RS_DBI_asResHandle(MGR_ID(conHandle),CON_ID(conHandle),res_id);
  return rsHandle;
}

void
RS_DBI_freeResultSet(Res_Handle *rsHandle)
{
  RS_DBI_resultSet  *result;
  RS_DBI_connection *con;
  Sint indx;

  con = RS_DBI_getConnection(rsHandle);
  result = RS_DBI_getResultSet(rsHandle);

  if(result->drvResultSet) {
    char *errMsg = 
      "internal error in RS_DBI_freeResultSet: non-freed result->drvResultSet (some memory leaked)";
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }
  if(result->drvData){
    char *errMsg =
      "internal error in RS_DBI_freeResultSet: non-freed result->drvData (some memory leaked)";
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_WARNING);
  }
  if(result->statement)
    free(result->statement);
  if(result->fields)
    RS_DBI_freeFields(result->fields);
  free(result);
  result = (RS_DBI_resultSet *) NULL;

  /* update connection's resultSet table */
  indx = RS_DBI_lookup(con->resultSetIds, con->length, RES_ID(rsHandle));
  RS_DBI_freeEntry(con->resultSetIds, indx);
  con->resultSets[indx] = (RS_DBI_resultSet *) NULL;
  con->num_res -= (Sint) 1;

  return;
}

RS_DBI_fields *
RS_DBI_allocFields(int num_fields)
{
  RS_DBI_fields *flds;
  size_t n;

  flds = (RS_DBI_fields *)malloc(sizeof(RS_DBI_fields));
  if(!flds){
    char *errMsg = "could not malloc RS_DBI_fields";
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }
  n = (size_t) num_fields;
  flds->num_fields = num_fields;
  flds->name =     (char **) calloc(n, sizeof(char *));
  flds->type =     (Sint *) calloc(n, sizeof(Sint));
  flds->length =   (Sint *) calloc(n, sizeof(Sint));
  flds->precision= (Sint *) calloc(n, sizeof(Sint));
  flds->scale =    (Sint *) calloc(n, sizeof(Sint));
  flds->nullOk =   (Sint *) calloc(n, sizeof(Sint));
  flds->isVarLength = (Sint *) calloc(n, sizeof(Sint));
  flds->Sclass =   (Stype *) calloc(n, sizeof(Stype));

  return flds;
}

void
RS_DBI_freeFields(RS_DBI_fields *flds)
{
  if(flds->name) free(flds->name);
  if(flds->type) free(flds->type);
  if(flds->length) free(flds->length);
  if(flds->precision) free(flds->precision);
  if(flds->scale) free(flds->scale);
  if(flds->nullOk) free(flds->nullOk);
  if(flds->isVarLength) free(flds->isVarLength);
  if(flds->Sclass) free(flds->Sclass);
  free(flds);
  flds = (RS_DBI_fields *) NULL;
  return;
}

/* Make a data.frame from a named list by adding row.names, and class 
 * attribute.  Use "1", "2", .. as row.names.
 * NOTE: Only tested  under R (not tested at all under S4 or Splus5+).
 */
void
RS_DBI_makeDataFrame(s_object *data)
{
   S_EVALUATOR

   s_object *row_names, *df_class_name; 
#ifndef USING_R
   s_object *S_RowNamesSymbol;       /* mimic Rinternal.h R_RowNamesSymbol */
   s_object *S_ClassSymbol;
#endif
   Sint   i, n;
   char   buf[1024];
   
#ifndef USING_R
   if(IS_LIST(data))
      data = AS_LIST(data);
   else
      RS_DBI_errorMessage(
            "internal error in RS_DBI_makeDataFrame: could not corce named-list into data.frame",
            RS_DBI_ERROR);
#endif

   MEM_PROTECT(data);
   MEM_PROTECT(df_class_name = NEW_CHARACTER((Sint) 1));
   SET_CHR_EL(df_class_name, 0, C_S_CPY("data.frame"));

   /* row.names */
   n = GET_LENGTH(LST_EL(data,0));            /* length(data[[1]]) */
   MEM_PROTECT(row_names = NEW_CHARACTER(n));
   for(i=0; i<n; i++){
      (void) sprintf(buf, "%d", i+1);
      SET_CHR_EL(row_names, i, C_S_CPY(buf));
   }
#ifdef USING_R
   SET_ROWNAMES(data, row_names);
   SET_CLASS_NAME(data, df_class_name);
#else
   /* untested S4/Splus code */
   MEM_PROTECT(S_RowNamesSymbol = NEW_CHARACTER((Sint) 1));
   SET_CHR_EL(S_RowNamesSymbol, 0, C_S_CPY("row.names"));

   MEM_PROTECT(S_ClassSymbol = NEW_CHARACTER((Sint) 1));
   SET_CHR_EL(S_ClassSymbol, 0, C_S_CPY("class"));
   /* Note: the fun attribute() is just an educated guess as to 
    * which function to use for setting attributes (see S.h) 
    */
   (void) attribute(data, S_ClassSymbol, df_class_name); 
   MEM_UNPROTECT(2);
#endif
   MEM_UNPROTECT(3);
   return;
}

void
RS_DBI_allocOutput(s_object *output, RS_DBI_fields *flds,
               Sint num_rec, Sint  expand)
{
  s_object *names, *s_tmp;
  Sint   j; 
  int    num_fields;
  Stype  *fld_Sclass;

#ifndef USING_R
  if(IS_LIST(output))
    output = AS_LIST(output);
  else 
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error in RS_DBI_allocOutput: could not (re)allocate output list",
                        RS_DBI_ERROR);
#endif

  MEM_PROTECT(output);

  num_fields = flds->num_fields;
  if(expand){
    for(j = 0; j < (Sint) num_fields; j++){
      /* Note that in R-1.2.3 (at least) we need to protect SET_LENGTH */
      s_tmp = LST_EL(output,j);
      MEM_PROTECT(SET_LENGTH(s_tmp, num_rec));  
      SET_ELEMENT(output, j, s_tmp);
      MEM_UNPROTECT(1);
    }
#ifndef USING_R
    output = AS_LIST(output);    /* this is only for S4's sake */
#endif
    MEM_UNPROTECT(1);
    return;
  }

  fld_Sclass = flds->Sclass;
  for(j = 0; j < (Sint) num_fields; j++){
    switch((int)fld_Sclass[j]){
    case LOGICAL_TYPE:    
      SET_ELEMENT(output, j, NEW_LOGICAL(num_rec));
      break;
    case CHARACTER_TYPE:
      SET_ELEMENT(output, j, NEW_CHARACTER(num_rec));
      break;
    case INTEGER_TYPE:
      SET_ELEMENT(output, j, NEW_INTEGER(num_rec));
      break;
    case NUMERIC_TYPE:
      SET_ELEMENT(output, j, NEW_NUMERIC(num_rec));
      break;
    case LIST_TYPE:
      SET_ELEMENT(output, j, NEW_LIST(num_rec));
      break;
#ifndef USING_R
    case RAW:  /* we use a list as a container for raw objects */
      SET_ELEMENT(output, j, NEW_LIST(num_rec));
      break;
#endif
    default:
      RS_DBI_errorMessage("unsupported data type", RS_DBI_ERROR);
    }
  }

  MEM_PROTECT(names = NEW_CHARACTER((Sint) num_fields));
  for(j = 0; j< (Sint) num_fields; j++){
    SET_CHR_EL(names,j, C_S_CPY(flds->name[j]));
  }
  SET_NAMES(output, names);
#ifndef USING_R
  output = AS_LIST(output);   /* again this is required only for S4 */
#endif

  MEM_UNPROTECT(2);
  
  return;
}

s_object *        /* boolean */
RS_DBI_validHandle(Db_Handle *handle)
{ 
   S_EVALUATOR
   s_object  *valid;
   int  handleType = 0;

   switch( (int) GET_LENGTH(handle)){
   case MGR_HANDLE_TYPE:
     handleType = MGR_HANDLE_TYPE;
     break;
   case CON_HANDLE_TYPE:
     handleType = CON_HANDLE_TYPE;
     break;
   case RES_HANDLE_TYPE:
     handleType = RES_HANDLE_TYPE;
     break;
   }
   MEM_PROTECT(valid = NEW_LOGICAL((Sint) 1));
   LGL_EL(valid,0) = (Sint) is_validHandle(handle, handleType);
   MEM_UNPROTECT(1);
   return valid;
}
    
void 
RS_DBI_setException(Db_Handle *handle, DBI_EXCEPTION exceptionType,
                int errorNum, const char *errorMsg)
{
  HANDLE_TYPE handleType;
  
  handleType = (int) GET_LENGTH(handle);
  if(handleType == MGR_HANDLE_TYPE){
    RS_DBI_manager *obj;
    obj =  RS_DBI_getManager(handle);
    obj->exception->exceptionType = exceptionType;
    obj->exception->errorNum = errorNum;
    obj->exception->errorMsg = RS_DBI_copyString(errorMsg);
  } 
  else if(handleType==CON_HANDLE_TYPE){
    RS_DBI_connection *obj;
    obj = RS_DBI_getConnection(handle);
    obj->exception->exceptionType = exceptionType;
    obj->exception->errorNum = errorNum;
    obj->exception->errorMsg = RS_DBI_copyString(errorMsg);
  } 
  else {
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error in RS_DBI_setException: could not setException",
          RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }
  return;
}

void 
RS_DBI_errorMessage(char *msg, DBI_EXCEPTION exception_type)
{
  char *driver = "RS-DBI";   /* TODO: use the actual driver name */
  
  switch(exception_type) {
  case RS_DBI_MESSAGE:
    PROBLEM "%s driver message: (%s)", driver, msg WARN; /* was PRINT_IT */
    break;
  case RS_DBI_WARNING:
    PROBLEM "%s driver warning: (%s)", driver, msg WARN;
    break;
  case RS_DBI_ERROR:
    PROBLEM  "%s driver: (%s)", driver, msg ERROR;
    break;
  case RS_DBI_TERMINATE:
    PROBLEM "%s driver fatal: (%s)", driver, msg ERROR; /* was TERMINATE */
    break;
  }
  return;
}

/* wrapper to strcpy */
char *
RS_DBI_copyString(const char *str)
{
  char *buffer;

  buffer = (char *) malloc((size_t) strlen(str)+1);
  if(!buffer)
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error in RS_DBI_copyString: could not alloc string space", 
          RS_DBI_ERROR);
  return strcpy(buffer, str);
}

/* wrapper to strncpy, plus (optionally) deleting trailing spaces */
char *
RS_DBI_nCopyString(const char *str, size_t len, int del_blanks)
{
  char *str_buffer, *end;
  
  str_buffer = (char *) malloc(len+1);
  if(!str_buffer){
    char errMsg[128];
    (void) sprintf(errMsg, 
               "could not malloc %ld bytes in RS_DBI_nCopyString",
               (long) len+1);
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_ERROR);
  }
  if(len==0){
    *str_buffer = '\0';
    return str_buffer;
  }

  (void) strncpy(str_buffer, str, len);

  /* null terminate string whether we delete trailing blanks or not*/
  if(del_blanks){
    for(end = str_buffer+len-1; end>=str_buffer; end--)
      if(*end != ' ') { end++; break; }
    *end = '\0';
  }
  else { 
    end = str_buffer + len;
    *end = '\0';
  }
  return str_buffer;
}

s_object *
RS_DBI_copyfields(RS_DBI_fields *flds)
{
  S_EVALUATOR

  s_object *S_fields;
  Sint  n = (Sint) 8;
  char  *desc[]={"name", "Sclass", "type", "len", "precision",
             "scale","isVarLength", "nullOK"};
  Stype types[] = {CHARACTER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE,
               INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE,
               LOGICAL_TYPE, LOGICAL_TYPE};
  Sint  lengths[8];
  int   i, j, num_fields;

  num_fields = flds->num_fields;
  for(j = 0; j < n; j++) 
    lengths[j] = (Sint) num_fields;
  S_fields =  RS_DBI_createNamedList(desc, types, lengths, n);
#ifndef USING_R
  if(IS_LIST(S_fields))
    S_fields = AS_LIST(S_fields);
  else
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error in RS_DBI_copyfields: could not alloc named list",
          RS_DBI_ERROR);
#endif
  /* copy contentes from flds into an R/S list */
  for(i = 0; i < num_fields; i++){
    SET_LST_CHR_EL(S_fields,0,i, C_S_CPY(flds->name[i]));
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,1,i) = (Sint) flds->Sclass[i];
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,2,i) = (Sint) flds->type[i];
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,3,i) = (Sint) flds->length[i];
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,4,i) = (Sint) flds->precision[i];
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,5,i) = (Sint) flds->scale[i];
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,6,i) = (Sint) flds->isVarLength[i];
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,7,i) = (Sint) flds->nullOk[i];
  }

  return S_fields;
} 

s_object *
RS_DBI_createNamedList(char **names, Stype *types, Sint *lengths, Sint  n)
{
  S_EVALUATOR
  s_object *output, *output_names, *obj = S_NULL_ENTRY;
  Sint  num_elem;
  int   j;

  MEM_PROTECT(output = NEW_LIST(n));
  MEM_PROTECT(output_names = NEW_CHARACTER(n));
  for(j = 0; j < n; j++){
    num_elem = lengths[j];
    switch((int)types[j]){
    case LOGICAL_TYPE: 
      MEM_PROTECT(obj = NEW_LOGICAL(num_elem));
      break;
    case INTEGER_TYPE:
      MEM_PROTECT(obj = NEW_INTEGER(num_elem));
      break;
    case NUMERIC_TYPE:
      MEM_PROTECT(obj = NEW_NUMERIC(num_elem));
      break;
    case CHARACTER_TYPE:
      MEM_PROTECT(obj = NEW_CHARACTER(num_elem));
      break;
    case LIST_TYPE:
      MEM_PROTECT(obj = NEW_LIST(num_elem));
      break;
#ifndef USING_R
    case RAW_TYPE:
      MEM_PROTECT(obj = NEW_RAW(num_elem));
      break;
#endif
    default:
      RS_DBI_errorMessage("unsupported data type", RS_DBI_ERROR);
    }
    SET_ELEMENT(output, (Sint)j, obj);
    SET_CHR_EL(output_names, j, C_S_CPY(names[j]));
  }
  SET_NAMES(output, output_names);
  MEM_UNPROTECT(n+2);
  return(output);
}

s_object *
RS_DBI_SclassNames(s_object *type)
{
  s_object *typeNames;
  Sint *typeCodes;
  Sint n;
  int  i;
  char *s;
  
  if(type==S_NULL_ENTRY)
     RS_DBI_errorMessage(
           "internal error in RS_DBI_SclassNames: input S types must be nonNULL",
           RS_DBI_ERROR);
  n = LENGTH(type);
  typeCodes = INTEGER_DATA(type);
  MEM_PROTECT(typeNames = NEW_CHARACTER(n));
  for(i = 0; i < n; i++) {
    s = RS_DBI_getTypeName(typeCodes[i], RS_dataTypeTable);
    if(!s)
      RS_DBI_errorMessage(
            "internal error RS_DBI_SclassNames: unrecognized S type", 
            RS_DBI_ERROR);
    SET_CHR_EL(typeNames, i, C_S_CPY(s));
  }
  MEM_UNPROTECT(1);
  return typeNames;
}

/* The following functions roughly implement a simple object
 * database. 
 */

Mgr_Handle *
RS_DBI_asMgrHandle(Sint mgrId)
{
  Mgr_Handle *mgrHandle;

  MEM_PROTECT(mgrHandle = NEW_INTEGER((Sint) 1));
  MGR_ID(mgrHandle) = mgrId;
  MEM_UNPROTECT(1);
  return mgrHandle;
}

Con_Handle *
RS_DBI_asConHandle(Sint mgrId, Sint conId)
{
  Con_Handle *conHandle;

  MEM_PROTECT(conHandle = NEW_INTEGER((Sint) 2));
  MGR_ID(conHandle) = mgrId;
  CON_ID(conHandle) = conId;
  MEM_UNPROTECT(1);
  return conHandle;
}

Res_Handle *
RS_DBI_asResHandle(Sint mgrId, Sint conId, Sint resId)
{
  Res_Handle *resHandle;

  MEM_PROTECT(resHandle = NEW_INTEGER((Sint) 3));
  MGR_ID(resHandle) = mgrId;
  CON_ID(resHandle) = conId;
  RES_ID(resHandle) = resId;
  MEM_UNPROTECT(1);
  return resHandle;
}

RS_DBI_manager *
RS_DBI_getManager(Mgr_Handle *handle)
{
  RS_DBI_manager  *mgr;

  if(!is_validHandle(handle, MGR_HANDLE_TYPE))
    RS_DBI_errorMessage("invalid dbManager handle", RS_DBI_ERROR);
  mgr = dbManager;
  if(!mgr)
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error in RS_DBI_getManager: corrupt dbManager handle",
        RS_DBI_ERROR);
  return mgr;
}

RS_DBI_connection *
RS_DBI_getConnection(Con_Handle *conHandle)
{
  RS_DBI_manager  *mgr;
  Sint indx;

  mgr = RS_DBI_getManager(conHandle);
  indx = RS_DBI_lookup(mgr->connectionIds, mgr->length, CON_ID(conHandle));
  if(indx < 0)
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error in RS_DBI_getConnection: corrupt connection handle",
        RS_DBI_ERROR);
  if(!mgr->connections[indx])
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error in RS_DBI_getConnection: corrupt connection  object",
        RS_DBI_ERROR);
  return mgr->connections[indx];
}

RS_DBI_resultSet *
RS_DBI_getResultSet(Res_Handle *rsHandle)
{
  RS_DBI_connection *con;
  Sint indx;
  
  con = RS_DBI_getConnection(rsHandle);
  indx = RS_DBI_lookup(con->resultSetIds, con->length, RES_ID(rsHandle));
  if(indx<0)
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
      "internal error in RS_DBI_getResultSet: could not find resultSet in connection",
      RS_DBI_ERROR);
  if(!con->resultSets[indx])
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error in RS_DBI_getResultSet: missing resultSet",
          RS_DBI_ERROR);
  return con->resultSets[indx];
}

/* Very simple objectId (mapping) table. newEntry() returns an index
 * to an empty cell in table, and lookup() returns the position in the
 * table of obj_id.  Notice that we decided not to touch the entries
 * themselves to give total control to the invoking functions (this 
 * simplify error management in the invoking routines.)
 */
Sint
RS_DBI_newEntry(Sint *table, Sint length)
{
  Sint i, indx, empty_val;

  indx = empty_val = (Sint) -1;
  for(i = 0; i < length; i++)
    if(table[i] == empty_val){
      indx = i;
      break;
    }
  return indx;
}
Sint
RS_DBI_lookup(Sint *table, Sint length, Sint obj_id)
{
  Sint i, indx;

  indx = (Sint) -1;
  for(i = 0; i < length; ++i){
    if(table[i]==obj_id){
      indx = i;
      break;
    }
  }
  return indx;
}

/* return a list of entries pointed by *entries (we allocate the space,
 * but the caller should free() it).  The function returns the number
 * of entries.
 */
Sint 
RS_DBI_listEntries(Sint *table, Sint length, Sint *entries)
{
  int i,n;

  for(i=n=0; i<length; i++){
    if(table[i]<0) continue;
    entries[n++] = table[i];
  }
  return n;
}
void 
RS_DBI_freeEntry(Sint *table, Sint indx)
{ /* no error checking!!! */
  Sint empty_val = (Sint) -1;
  table[indx] = empty_val;
  return;
}
int 
is_validHandle(Db_Handle *handle, HANDLE_TYPE handleType)
{
  Sint  mgr_id, len, indx;
  RS_DBI_manager    *mgr;
  RS_DBI_connection *con;

  if(IS_INTEGER(handle))
    handle = AS_INTEGER(handle);
  else
    return 0;       /* non handle object */

  len = (int) GET_LENGTH(handle);
  if(len<handleType || handleType<1 || handleType>3) 
    return 0;
  mgr_id = MGR_ID(handle);
  if( ((Sint) getpid()) != mgr_id)
    return 0;

  /* at least we have a potential valid dbManager */
  mgr = dbManager;
  if(!mgr || !mgr->connections)  return 0;   /* expired manager*/
  if(handleType == MGR_HANDLE_TYPE) return 1;     /* valid manager id */

  /* ... on to connections */
  indx = RS_DBI_lookup(mgr->connectionIds, mgr->length, CON_ID(handle));
  if(indx<0) return 0;
  con = mgr->connections[indx];
  if(!con) return 0;
  if(!con->resultSets) return 0;       /* un-initialized (invalid) */
  if(handleType==CON_HANDLE_TYPE) return 1; /* valid connection id */

  /* .. on to resultSets */
  indx = RS_DBI_lookup(con->resultSetIds, con->length, RES_ID(handle));
  if(indx < 0) return 0;
  if(!con->resultSets[indx]) return 0;

  return 1;
}

/* The following 3 routines provide metadata for the 3 main objects 
 * dbManager, dbConnection and dbResultSet.  These functions 
 * an object Id and return a list with all the meta-data. In R/S we 
 * simply invoke one of these and extract the metadata piece we need, 
 * which can be NULL if non-existent or un-implemented.
 * 
 * Actually, each driver should modify these functions to add the
 * driver-specific info, such as server version, client version, etc.
 * That's how the various RS_MySQL_managerInfo, etc., were implemented.
 */

s_object *         /* named list */
RS_DBI_managerInfo(Mgr_Handle *mgrHandle)
{
  S_EVALUATOR

  RS_DBI_manager *mgr;
  s_object *output;
  Sint  i, num_con;
  Sint n = (Sint) 7;
  char *mgrDesc[] = {"connectionIds", "fetch_default_rec","managerId",
                 "length", "num_con", "counter", "clientVersion"};
  Stype mgrType[] = {INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE,
                 INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE, 
                     CHARACTER_TYPE};
  Sint  mgrLen[]  = {1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1};
  
  mgr = RS_DBI_getManager(mgrHandle);
  num_con = (Sint) mgr->num_con;
  mgrLen[0] = num_con;

  output = RS_DBI_createNamedList(mgrDesc, mgrType, mgrLen, n);
#ifndef USING_R
  if(IS_LIST(output))
    output = AS_LIST(output);
  else
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error: could not alloc named list", 
        RS_DBI_ERROR);
#endif
  for(i = 0; i < num_con; i++)
    LST_INT_EL(output,0,i) = (Sint) mgr->connectionIds[i];

  LST_INT_EL(output,1,0) = (Sint) mgr->fetch_default_rec;
  LST_INT_EL(output,2,0) = (Sint) mgr->managerId;
  LST_INT_EL(output,3,0) = (Sint) mgr->length;
  LST_INT_EL(output,4,0) = (Sint) mgr->num_con;
  LST_INT_EL(output,5,0) = (Sint) mgr->counter;
  SET_LST_CHR_EL(output,6,0,C_S_CPY("NA"));   /* client versions? */

  return output;
}

/* The following should be considered templetes to be 
 * implemented by individual drivers.
 */

s_object *        /* return a named list */
RS_DBI_connectionInfo(Con_Handle *conHandle)
{
  S_EVALUATOR
  
  RS_DBI_connection  *con;
  s_object *output;
  Sint     i;
  Sint  n = (Sint) 8;
  char *conDesc[] = {"host", "user", "dbname", "conType",
                 "serverVersion", "protocolVersion",
                 "threadId", "rsHandle"};
  Stype conType[] = {CHARACTER_TYPE, CHARACTER_TYPE, CHARACTER_TYPE,
                  CHARACTER_TYPE, CHARACTER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE,
                  INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE};
  Sint  conLen[]  = {1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, -1};

  con = RS_DBI_getConnection(conHandle);
  conLen[7] = con->num_res;   /* number of resultSets opened */

  output = RS_DBI_createNamedList(conDesc, conType, conLen, n);
#ifndef USING_R
  if(IS_LIST(output))
    output = AS_LIST(output);
  else
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error in RS_DBI_connectionInfo: could not alloc named list",
        RS_DBI_ERROR);
#endif
  /* dummy */
  SET_LST_CHR_EL(output,0,0,C_S_CPY("NA"));        /* host */
  SET_LST_CHR_EL(output,1,0,C_S_CPY("NA"));        /* dbname */
  SET_LST_CHR_EL(output,2,0,C_S_CPY("NA"));        /* user */
  SET_LST_CHR_EL(output,3,0,C_S_CPY("NA"));        /* conType */
  SET_LST_CHR_EL(output,4,0,C_S_CPY("NA"));        /* serverVersion */

  LST_INT_EL(output,5,0) = (Sint) -1;            /* protocolVersion */
  LST_INT_EL(output,6,0) = (Sint) -1;            /* threadId */

  for(i=0; i < con->num_res; i++)
    LST_INT_EL(output,7,(Sint) i) = con->resultSetIds[i];

  return output;
}

s_object *       /* return a named list */
RS_DBI_resultSetInfo(Res_Handle *rsHandle)
{
  S_EVALUATOR

  RS_DBI_resultSet       *result;
  s_object  *output, *flds;
  Sint  n = (Sint) 6;
  char  *rsDesc[] = {"statement", "isSelect", "rowsAffected",
                 "rowCount", "completed", "fields"};
  Stype rsType[]  = {CHARACTER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE,
                 INTEGER_TYPE,   INTEGER_TYPE, LIST_TYPE};
  Sint  rsLen[]   = {1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1};

  result = RS_DBI_getResultSet(rsHandle);
  if(result->fields)
    flds = RS_DBI_copyfields(result->fields);
  else
    flds = S_NULL_ENTRY;

  output = RS_DBI_createNamedList(rsDesc, rsType, rsLen, n);
#ifndef USING_R
  if(IS_LIST(output))
    output = AS_LIST(output);
  else
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error in RS_DBI_resultSetInfo: could not alloc named list",
        RS_DBI_ERROR);
#endif
  SET_LST_CHR_EL(output,0,0,C_S_CPY(result->statement));
  LST_INT_EL(output,1,0) = result->isSelect;
  LST_INT_EL(output,2,0) = result->rowsAffected;
  LST_INT_EL(output,3,0) = result->rowCount;
  LST_INT_EL(output,4,0) = result->completed;
  SET_ELEMENT(LST_EL(output, 5), (Sint) 0, flds);

  return output;
}

s_object *    /* named list */
RS_DBI_getFieldDescriptions(RS_DBI_fields *flds)
{
  S_EVALUATOR

  s_object *S_fields;
  Sint  n = (Sint) 7;
  Sint  lengths[7];
  char  *desc[]={"name", "Sclass", "type", "len", "precision",
            "scale","nullOK"};
  Stype types[] = {CHARACTER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE,
               INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE, INTEGER_TYPE,
               LOGICAL_TYPE};
  Sint   i, j;
  int    num_fields;

  num_fields = flds->num_fields;
  for(j = 0; j < n; j++) 
    lengths[j] = (Sint) num_fields;
  S_fields =  RS_DBI_createNamedList(desc, types, lengths, n);
#ifndef USING_R
  if(IS_LIST(S_fields))
    S_fields = AS_LIST(S_fields);
  else
    RS_DBI_errorMessage(
          "internal error in RS_DBI_getFieldDescription: could not alloc named list",
          RS_DBI_ERROR);
#endif
  /* copy contentes from flds into an R/S list */
  for(i = 0; i < (Sint) num_fields; i++){
    SET_LST_CHR_EL(S_fields,0,i,C_S_CPY(flds->name[i]));
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,1,i) = (Sint) flds->Sclass[i];
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,2,i) = (Sint) flds->type[i];
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,3,i) = (Sint) flds->length[i];
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,4,i) = (Sint) flds->precision[i];
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,5,i) = (Sint) flds->scale[i];
    LST_INT_EL(S_fields,6,i) = (Sint) flds->nullOk[i];
  }

  return(S_fields);
}

/* given a type id return its human-readable name.
 * We define an RS_DBI_dataTypeTable */
char *
RS_DBI_getTypeName(Sint t, const struct data_types table[])
{
  int i;
  char buf[128];

  for (i = 0; table[i].typeName != (char *) 0; i++) {
    if (table[i].typeId == t)
      return table[i].typeName;
  }
  sprintf(buf, "unknown (%ld)", (long) t);
  RS_DBI_errorMessage(buf, RS_DBI_WARNING);
  return (char *) 0; /* for -Wall */
}

/* Translate R/S identifiers (and only R/S names!!!) into 
 * valid SQL identifiers;  overwrite input vector. Currently,
 *   (1) translate "." into "_".  
 *   (2) first character should be a letter (traslate to "X" if not),
 *       but a double quote signals a "delimited identifier"
 *   (3) check that length <= 18, but only warn, since most (all?)
 *       dbms allow much longer identifiers.
 *   (4) SQL reserved keywords are handled in the R/S calling 
 *       function make.SQL.names(), not here.
 * BUG: Compound SQL identifiers are not handled properly.
 *      Note the the dot "." is a valid SQL delimiter, used for specifying
 *      user/table in a compound identifier.  Thus, it's possible that 
 *      such compound name is mapped into a legal R/S identifier (preserving
 *      the "."), and then we incorrectly map such delimiting "dot" into "_" 
 *      thus loosing the original SQL compound identifier.  
 */
#define RS_DBI_MAX_IDENTIFIER_LENGTH 18      /* as per SQL92 */
s_object *
RS_DBI_makeSQLNames(s_object *snames)
{
   S_EVALUATOR
   long     nstrings;
   char     *name, c;
   char     errMsg[128];
   size_t   len;
   Sint     i;

   nstrings = (Sint) GET_LENGTH(snames);
   for(i = 0; i<nstrings; i++){
      name = CHR_EL(snames, i);
      if(strlen(name)> RS_DBI_MAX_IDENTIFIER_LENGTH){
       (void) sprintf(errMsg,"SQL identifier %s longer than %d chars", 
                  name, RS_DBI_MAX_IDENTIFIER_LENGTH);
       RS_DBI_errorMessage(errMsg, RS_DBI_WARNING);
      }
      /* check for delimited-identifiers (those in double-quotes);
       * if missing closing double-quote, warn and treat as non-delim 
       */
      c = *name;
      len = strlen(name);
      if(c=='"' && name[len-1] =='"') 
         continue;  
      if(!isalpha(c) && c!='"') *name = 'X';
      name++;
      while((c=*name)){
       /* TODO: recognize SQL delim "." instances that may have
        * originated in SQL and R/S make.names() left alone */
       if(c=='.') *name='_';
       name++;
      }
   }

   return snames;
}
#ifdef USING_R
/*  These 2 R-specific functions are used by the C macros IS_NA(p,t) 
 *  and NA_SET(p,t) (in this way one simply use macros to test and set
 *  NA's regardless whether we're using R or S.
 */
void
RS_na_set(void *ptr, Stype type)
{
  double *d;
  Sint   *i;
  char   *c;
  switch(type){
  case INTEGER_TYPE:
    i = (Sint *) ptr;
    *i = NA_INTEGER;
    break;
  case LOGICAL_TYPE:
    i = (Sint *) ptr;
    *i = NA_LOGICAL;
    break;
  case NUMERIC_TYPE:
    d = (double *) ptr;
    *d = NA_REAL;
    break;
  case STRING_TYPE:
    c = (char *) ptr;
    c = CHR_EL(NA_STRING, 0);
    break;
  }
}
int
RS_is_na(void *ptr, Stype type)
{
   int *i, out = -2;
   char *c;
   double *d;

   switch(type){
   case INTEGER_TYPE:
   case LOGICAL_TYPE:
      i = (int *) ptr;
      out = (int) ((*i) == NA_INTEGER);
      break;
   case NUMERIC_TYPE:
      d = (double *) ptr;
      out = ISNA(*d);
      break;
   case STRING_TYPE:
      c = (char *) ptr;
      out = (int) (strcmp(c, CHR_EL(NA_STRING, 0))==0);
      break;
   }
   return out;
}
#endif
/* the codes come from from R/src/main/util.c */
const struct data_types RS_dataTypeTable[] = {
#ifdef USING_R
    { "NULL",           NILSXP         },  /* real types */
    { "symbol",         SYMSXP         },
    { "pairlist", LISTSXP        },
    { "closure",  CLOSXP         },
    { "environment",    ENVSXP         },
    { "promise",  PROMSXP        },
    { "language", LANGSXP        },
    { "special",  SPECIALSXP },
    { "builtin",  BUILTINSXP },
    { "char",           CHARSXP        },
    { "logical",  LGLSXP         },
    { "integer",  INTSXP         },
    { "double",         REALSXP        }, /*-  "real", for R <= 0.61.x */
    { "complex",  CPLXSXP        },
    { "character",      STRSXP         },
    { "...",            DOTSXP         },
    { "any",            ANYSXP         },
    { "expression",     EXPRSXP        },
    { "list",           VECSXP         },
    /* aliases : */
    { "numeric",  REALSXP        },
    { "name",           SYMSXP         },
    { (char *)0,  -1       }
#else
    { "logical",  LGL     },
    { "integer",  INT     },
    { "single",         REAL    },
    { "numeric",  DOUBLE        },
    { "character",      CHAR    },
    { "list",           LIST    },
    { "complex",  COMPLEX       },
    { "raw",            RAW     },
    { "any",            ANY     },
    { "structure",      STRUCTURE },
    { (char *)0,  -1      }
#endif
};

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